The greatest obstacle to help you conducting empirical education towards the dowry ‘s the lack or inadequacy of information

The greatest obstacle to help you conducting empirical education towards the dowry ‘s the lack or inadequacy of information

2.2 Problems with current analysis

Since the dowry was lawfully prohibited during the Asia and you will Bangladesh, some one constantly hesitate to show direct dowry number. The quality matter to the dowry on Indian dataset asks on community-situated dowry. asiatiske datingsider i USA Like, the fresh India Individual Invention Survey asks “Basically in your community getting a family instance a, exactly what are the version of points that are supplied while the presents during the newest daughter’s relationship?” A residential area-situated dowry is not the identical to a single dowry, that is paid back of the bride’s mothers during the time of wedding. As an alternative, the question out of dowry lets just a binary address, we.e., even though a confident amount of dowry is actually paid back (e.g., Survey toward Condition of females and you can Fertility in Asia and Pakistan). A binary respond to, needless to say, will not bring much facts. Standard from if a confident dowry matter is provided corresponds so you’re able to, and is mainly told me because of the, cultural, religious, and caste experiences within the Southern China.

Since dowry is not lawfully prohibited inside Pakistan, the quantity actually reduced of the feminine respondent’s parents might be requested in the place of reservation in the good Pakistani dataset including the Pakistan Outlying Home Survey. Regardless if Pakistani interviewees may not purposefully conceal real information about dowry techniques, the fresh survey could possibly get however incorporate keep in mind mistakes as the participants have to keep in mind the fresh new dowry amount paid back of the its moms and dads previously. Figure 1a plots the predicted quantity of actual dowry philosophy counted in Pakistani Rupees when you look at the 2004 on to relationships year using investigation from the latest Pakistan Rural Domestic Survey. Once the consensus is that actual dowry quantity try increasing, or at least display a non-decreasing trend, the figure suggests the entire tendency of remember errors. This basically means, the fresh longer the fresh new pit within interviewees’ marriage plus the remember time, a lot more likely they are to overestimate this new dowry matter.

Relationship anywhere between women’s ounts. The latest line suggests the newest predict actual level of dowry regressed toward women’s matrimony year. Brand new shady city suggests 95% depend on interval of the predict quantity of dowry. The knowledge types of (a) and you will (b) was Pakistan Rural House Questionnaire 2004, additionally the rural family questionnaire used by the writer when you look at the 2013, correspondingly

step 3 Analysis

On best of our training, studies amassed within this investigation may be the basic to take on explicitly a broad tendency to overestimate an amount repaid a long time ago. Much like the functions from prior to now accumulated analysis, ours are also retrospective; not, according to this interest, we such as adopted certain perform to attenuate questionnaire recall errors. Instance, we required the degree of both area-created dowry (non-retrospective) and private dowry matter paid down during the time of new respondent’s matrimony (retrospective). Just like the Pakistani dowry include silver/jewellery, dresses, furniture, kitchenware, and stuff like that, we queried dowry numbers because of the item. If we noticed good respondent’s overestimation of your own dowry count, especially in the fact away from a married relationship one to occurred a very long time before, just like the dowry are showed, we can and you will did look at these quantity which have people that attended this new service. Consequently, all of our studies on the forecast actual degrees of dowry (Fig. 1b) do not let you know one coming down pattern, on the other hand which have people stated in Fig. 1a.

step three.step 1 Questionnaire

When conducting our survey between , we intended to capture the heterogeneous aspects of the Punjab province in Pakistan. We divided Punjab (36 districts) into five regions: Pothohar (or North), Central, East, West, and South Punjab. Climate, culture (including marriage/inheritance practices), and socioeconomic conditions differ across regions but are similar within each region. We randomly selected one district from each region, namely, Rawalpindi, Mandi Bahauddin, Narowal, Muzaffargarh, and Bahawalnagar (Fig. 2). We used the district census for 1998–1999, the latest census available in Pakistan as of 2013, to randomly select six villages in rural areas in each of the five districts. We restricted sampling villages to those with a population of at least 1000 at the time of the census. In each village, we selected 22 households, following a stratified random sampling methodology. First, with assistance from the village chief, we made a list of households in the village and categorized them into a stratum. The strata are kammees Footnote 10 (i.e., traditional service or lower caste, with annual income ? PKR 200,000, > PKR 200,000) and zamindars (i.e., landowning farmers with land < 5,>12.5 acres). Eligible households in our survey are defined as those with an economically active husband and wife aged 15–65. Second, we performed stratified random sampling so that the share of each stratum in our sample corresponds to the share of each stratum of the village population (= households).

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